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 Xem thêm phần Phụ lục: DANH SÁCH CÁC GIÁO SĨ BÁC HỌC/KHOA HỌC GIA CÔNG GIÁO

NHỮNG CỐNG HIẾN VỀ KHOA HỌC CỦA GIÁO HỘI CÔNG GIÁO CHO NỀN VĂN MINH NHÂN LOẠI

NHỮNG KHOA HỌC GIA TIN VÀO THIÊN CHÚA
Chu Tất Tiến

Từ ngàn xưa, những người chống đối đạo Chúa vẫn điên cuồng tìm mọi cách tiêu diệt tôn giáo này, hoặc bằng lý lẽ, hoặc bằng hành động. Tại Roma, vẫn còn những hầm ngầm dưới đất dành cho những người Công Giáo ở lẫn với người chết, khi lệnh cấm đạo được ban hành gắt gao. Tất cả những ai theo Chúa sẽ bị xử chết, bị đẩy vào đấu trường nơi sư tử, chó sói đợi chờ. Hàng vạn người bị đóng đinh, treo cổ, đốt sống như những cây đuốc. Những kẻ tin Chúa đành phải sống dưới mặt đất, nơi không có rau cỏ, không có nước uống, chỉ được tiếp tế chút thực phẩm từ trên mặt đất, và khi chết bệnh thì được đút vào những cái lỗ đào xung quanh tường. Họ đã sống với hôi hám, với giòi bọ, bệnh tật, không khí ngột ngạt như thế trong hơn ba trăm năm… cho đến khi được ngoi lên mặt đất trở lại.

Tại nhiều nơi khác trên thế giới, hễ mang dấu thập giá cũng bị giết một cách tàn khốc.

Ngay tại Việt Nam, khoảng trăm ngàn người đã bị tra tấn, hành hạ, và bị giết vì đạo dưới thời các vua đầu triều Nguyễn. Trước 1975, ở miền Bắc, số linh mục, tu sĩ bị thủ tiêu, bị nhốt cho chết dần lên đến con số chục vạn. Sau 1975, ở miền Nam, khởi đầu với vụ Vinh Sơn và một linh mục bị xử bắn đến Thái Hà, Tam Tòa, Loan Lý, nay đến Đồng Chiêm, qua những vụ bắt bớ cá nhân như Linh Mục Nguyễn văn Lý và nhiều vị khác còn trong tù, Cộng Sản Việt Nam vẫn chứng tỏ rằng chúng là kẻ thù của Tôn Giáo và luôn tìm cách tiêu diệt niềm tin của tôn giáo bằng những thủ đoạn gian manh, vô liêm sỉ, đồng thời chia rẽ các tôn giáo với nhau.

Với Phật Giáo, chúng tung tin giả “Hòa Thượng Thích Quảng Độ chính là Cộng Sản trá hình, Phật Giáo là cánh tay mặt của Cộng Sản.” Với Hòa Hảo, chúng phân rẽ thành hai ba nhóm, xúi giục nhóm này mạ lị nhóm kia. Với Tin Lành, trong khi cho một tổ chức này làm lễ linh đình, chúng gia tăng đánh đập, bỏ tù, và đấu tố các Mục Sư khác, cho du đãng ném đá, cưa xập nhà của các vị Mục Sư nói lên tiếng nói lương tâm. Còn Cao Đài, chúng nhốt những vị lãnh đạo tinh thần có tư tưởng Quốc Gia cũ, bổ dụng thêm một số “quốc doanh” rồi khống chế giáo hội.

Gần đây, ngoài việc dùng du đãng tấn công người Công Giáo ở quê nhà, chúng lợi dụng bóng tối của diễn đàn “ảo”, gửi ra hải ngoại những bản tin, những bài viết công kích Công Giáo một cách điên cuồng. Vì không sợ ai nhận diện, nên chúng tha hồ viết những lời phân tích ngớ ngẩn, với luận điệu ấu trĩ của bọn lưu manh làm nhức đầu những ai theo Chúa. Chúng cho rằng: “Công Giáo toàn là những kẻ phản quốc, cuồng tín, ngu muội nên mới tin rằng Mẹ Maria Đồng Trinh, Vatican luôn có mộng thống trị Việt Nam, hình ảnh Chúa Trời chỉ là bánh vẽ của Tây Phương, dùng để lung lạc những người dân thiếu học, Vatican chỉ dụ dỗ được những kẻ ngu si…”. Thâm chí, chúng còn viết những điều bậy bạ kinh khủng về phái tính của Chúa Giêsu và Đức Mẹ. Chúng tưởng làm như vậy, sẽ gây hoang mang cho tín hữu, khiến người ta bỏ đạo, hoặc mất lòng tin vào Chúa. Như thế số tín đồ sẽ kém đi, hoạt động của dân Chúa sẽ nhỏ đi. Đồng thời, chúng mong rằng những người không Công Giáo sẽ chán chê đạo Chúa, mà tiếp tay với chúng mạ lị đạo Chúa luôn. Nếu được như thế, thì sự đoàn kết Tôn Giáo sẽ bị phá vỡ, tiến trình Tự Do - Dân Chủ của đất nước sẽ bị chậm lại, đủ cho những kẻ lãnh đạo “hạ cánh an toàn” ở một quốc gia nào đó với hàng tỷ đô la trong tay.

Theo lẽ, một khi bị bọn lưu manh này tấn công trên diễn đàn, người có tín ngưỡng phải im lặng xóa tên chúng, mặc kệ cho chúng lải nhải mãi một luận điệu côn đồ này đến khi không ai trả lời nữa thì đòn phá đám của chúng sẽ vô hiệu. Tuy nhiên, vì bọn Vô Tổ Quốc, Vô Văn Hóa này đã tung hoành trên mạng quá nhiều, và có thể có chút ảnh hưởng đến suy nghĩ của một số người chưa hiểu rõ vấn đề, khiến họ đồng ý với luận điệu tuyên truyền của chúng nên người viết bài này phải tập trung một số nhỏ tên tuổi của những nhà Khoa Học, Bác Học Công Giáo từ xưa đến nay để chứng minh rằng, nếu không có sự đóng góp của các nhà khoa học Công Giáo, từ Toán học, Vật Lý Học, Triết Học, đến Thiên Văn Học, Y Học… thì thế giới đã không phát triển được như ngày nay. (Dĩ nhiên, trong số muôn ngàn những vị Bác Học đã làm cho văn minh nhân loại phát triển, có rất nhiều người không phải Công Giáo, hoặc không có niềm tin vào một Đấng Tối Cao nào. Bài này chỉ để chứng minh rằng niềm tin vào Chúa không phải chỉ có từ những kẻ ngu muội.)

Dưới đây là một số khuôn mặt trong hàng vạn các nhà Bác Học trên thế giới đã tin tưởng mãnh liệt vào sự hiện diện của Thiên Chúa trong đời sống nhân loại:




1-Bede, the Venerable (c.672–735), tác giả cuốn "Time and its Reckoning”. (Thời gian và sự Phán đoán), trong đó nói lên những nhận thức của ông về vũ trụ và Thiên Chúa một cách sắc bén.

Nguồn: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bede
 

2-Hunayn ibn Ishaq (c. 809-873), nhà vật lý người Assyrian, viết lại những công việc khoa học của người Hy Lạp và tác giả cuốn “Mười điều liên hệ đến Nhãn khoa.”

Nguồn: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hunayn_ibn_Ishaq
     


3-Pope Sylvester II (c.950–1003)
, khoa học gia và người sưu tầm sách, dậy Toán và Thiên Văn học.

Nguồn: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Sylvester_II
 

4-Hermann of Reichenau (1013–1054)
, viết về Hình học, Toán học, và khoa “đo vị trí của tinh tú”.

Nguồn: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hermann_of_Reichenau
     


5-Robert Grosseteste (c.1175–1253) người sáng lập ra những kiến thức về khoa học cho trường Oxford, viết nhiều về khoa học thiên nhiên, toán, thiên văn học, quang học, và hình học; người áp dụng phương pháp thực nghiệm để chứng minh thay vì dùng lý luận.

Nguồn: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Grosseteste
 

6-Albertus Magnus (c.1193–1280) người đầu tiên cô lập được chất độc “arsenic”.

Nguồn: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albertus_Magnus
     



7-Roger Bacon (c.1214–1294), người áp dụng phương pháp thực nghiệm và các phương pháp khoa học tân tiến. Viết về Luật Thiên Nhiên, cơ khí, địa lý và quang học.

Nguồn: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roger_Bacon
 

8-Theodoric of Freiberg (c.1250–c.1310), người đầu tiên giải thích về hiện tượng Cầu Vồng.

Nguồn: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theodoric_of_Freiberg
     



9-Thomas Bradwardine (c.1290–1349), người dẫn đến các nguyên tắc quan trọng của Cơ Khí học.

Nguồn: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Bradwardine
 

10-Nicole Oresme (c.1323–1382), Giám Mục thành Lisieux, người tìm ra nguyên tắc của sự Chiết Quang (phân tích về ánh sáng).

Nguồn: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicole_Oresme
     


11-Michael Servetus (1511-1553) Người chứng minh sự tuần hoàn của phổi.

Nguồn: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michael_Servetus
 

12-Michael Stifel (c. 1486-1567) người phát triển các “đường cong toán học Logarithms.

Nguồn: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michael_Stifel
     


13-William Turner (c.1508–1568), cha đẻ của “thực vật học” và “điểu loại học”.

Nguồn: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Turner_(naturalist)
 

14-Bartholomaeus Pitiscus (1561–1613) cha đẻ của Lượng Giác học.

Nguồn: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bartholomaeus_Pitiscus
     


15-John Napier (1550–1617), toán học gia người Scottish, được coi là cha đẻ của Logarithms cũng như cách dùng thập phân.

Nguồn: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Napier
 

16-Johannes Kepler (1571–1630) Nhà vũ trụ học, tính toán sự di chuyển của các thiên hà.

Nguồn: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johannes_Kepler
     


17-Laurentius Gothus (1565–1646) Giáo sư về Thiên văn học và Lý thuyết.

Nguồn: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laurentius_Paulinus_Gothus
 

18-Galileo Galilei (1564–1642) Người phát kiến ra việc trái đất quay quanh mặt trời.

Nguồn: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galileo_Galilei
     


19-René Descartes (1596–1650) Nhà bác học về Hình học và Những con số bất biến. Người hướng dẫn cuộc Cách Mạng Khoa học của phương Tây.

Nguồn: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ren%C3%A9_Descartes
 

20-Anton Maria Schyrleus of Rheita (1597-1660) Nhà thiên văn học, đã dâng hiến công trình của mình cho Mẹ Maria Đồng Trinh.

Nguồn: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anton_Maria_Schyrleus_of_Rheita
     


21-Blaise Pascal (1623–1662) Thần đồng toán học, vật lý, và Lý Thuyết. Người sáng tác câu nói bất hủ: “Khoa học nông cạn làm cho người ta xa Thiên Chúa. Khoa học tinh vi làm cho người ta gần Thiên Chúa”. Và, “Con người chỉ là cây sậy có tư tưởng.”

Nguồn: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blaise_Pascal
 

22-Isaac Barrow (1630-1677) Nhà khoa học và toán học nổi tiếng của nước Anh.

Nguồn: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isaac_Barrow
     


23-Robert Boyle (1627–1691) Khoa học gia và Lý thuyết gia, người cho rằng nghiên cứu khoa học có thể làm vinh danh Thiên Chúa.

Nguồn: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Boyle
 

24-Isaac Newton (1643–1727) Nhà khoa học và toán học vĩ đại nhất của mọi thời đại.

Nguồn: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isaac_Newton
     


25-Louis Pasteur (1822 - 1895) Người sáng chế ra phương pháp khử trùng, nhà hóa học, và vi khuẩn học, đã giải trừ vấn nạn của bệnh chó dại, tiêu chẩy gà, bệnh của tằm, và người đầu tiên tạo ra việc chích ngừa.

Nguồn: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_Pasteur


26-George Jackson Mivart (1827 - 1900) Hàn Lâm về Thực Vật Học, người nổi tiếng về Thực Trùng Học đồng thời cũng là người chỉ trích Charles Darwin mãnh liệt.

Nguồn: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St._George_Jackson_Mivart
     


27-John Ambrose Fleming (1849 - 1945) Viết về Luật của Tay Phải và nghiên cứu về Bình Chân Không.

Nguồn: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Ambrose_Fleming
 

28-Max Planck (1858-1947) Đoạt giải Nobel về vật lý và là cha đẻ của thuyết Quantum mechanics.

Nguồn: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Max_Planck
     


29-Robert Millikan (1868–1953) Đoạt giải Nobel về Vật Lý, viết sách về sự dung hòa giữa tôn giáo và khoa học.

Nguồn: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Andrews_Millikan


30-Arthur Compton (1892–1962) Đoạt giải Nobel về Vật Lý.

Nguồn: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_Compton
     


31-Georges Lemaître (1894-1966) Linh mục Công Giáo, người khai phá ra thuyết Big Bang.

Nguồn: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georges_Lema%C3%AEtre
 

32-Arthur Peacocke (1924-2006) Nhà thực vật học, khoa trưởng trường Clare College, Cambridge, đoạt giải Templeton năm 2001.

Nguồn: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_Peacocke
     


33-C. F. von Weizsäcker (1912-2007)
Nhà vật lý nguyên tử Đức. Viết về sự va chạm giữa Thiên Chúa giáo và khoa học.

Nguồn: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carl_Friedrich_von_Weizs%C3%A4cker
 

34-Stanley Jaki (1924-2009) Linh mục và Giáo sư Danh Dự về Vật Lý tại Seton Hall University, New Jersey, đoạt giải Templeton Prize.

Nguồn: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stanley_Jaki
     

Trên đây chỉ là một số Khoa học gia Công Giáo điển hình. Ngoài ra, còn hàng trăm vị Bác Học khác nổi tiếng trên thế giới về nhiều đóng góp khoa học khác mà không thể kể hết được, chưa nói đến những nhà xã hội học và văn học.

Công Giáo, như thế, không phải chỉ gồm toàn những kẻ ngu muội, mất trí như người Cộng Sản nói. Công Giáo cũng không phải thuốc phiện, bởi những nhà khoa học vừa nêu trên, là những nhà suy tưởng vĩ đại của nhân loại. Trừ giai đoạn Trung Cổ, đạo Chúa đã suy đồi qua vài thế kỷ, nhưng rồi, đã biết sửa sai và bất kể những trở ngại của cuộc đời, hiện nay, đạo Chúa vẫn vững vàng với hơn một phần tư dân số thế giới.

Để kết luận, xin ghi lại lời nguyện của Thánh Mahatma Gandhi:

Lạy Chúa,

Xin cho con dám nói lên sự thật truớc kẻ mạnh và đừng nói dối để đuợc kẻ yếu tán thuởng.
Nếu Chúa cho con tiền bạc, xin đừng lấy đi hạnh phúc cuả con.
Nếu Chúa cho con sức mạnh, xin đừng lấy đi khả năng lý luận cuả con.
Nếu Chúa cho con thành công, xin đừng lấy đi đức khiêm nhu cuả con.
Nếu Chúa cho con đức khiêm nhu, xin đừng lấy đi lòng tự trọng cuả con.

Xin giúp con nhận biết đuợc khiá cạnh khác cuả sự việc,
và đừng để con kết tội những kẻ đối nghịch với con là phản bội,
vì họ không chia xẻ quan điểm cuả con.
Xin dậy cho con biết yêu thuơng kẻ khác như yêu thuơng chính bản thân mình.
Và dậy con phán đoán chính bản thân mình như phán đoán kẻ khác.
Xin đừng để con say men chiến thắng khi đạt đuợc thành công,
Và đừng để con thất vọng khi con thất bại.

Nhưng hãy dậy con nhớ rằng
Thất bại là thử thách đưa đến thành công.
Xin dậy cho con biết rằng lòng khoan dung là mức độ cao nhất cuả sức mạnh.
Và ý muốn trả thù là biểu hiện đầu tiên cuả sư yếu đuối.
Nếu Chúa không ban cho con cuả cải,
Xin hãy cho con lòng trông cậy.

Nếu Chúa không cho con thành công,
Xin hãy cho con ý chí mạnh mẽ để tiếp nhận thất bại.
Nếu Chúa không cho con sức khoẻ,
Xin hãy cho con ân sủng đức tin.

Nếu con có làm ai tổn thuơng,
Xin ban cho con sức mạnh để xin lỗi họ.
Nếu có ai làm cho con tổn thuơng,
Xin cho con lòng độ luợng và sức mạnh để tha lỗi cho họ.

Lạy Chúa
Nếu con có quên Chúa,
Thì lạy Ngài,
Xin Ngài đừng quên con.

Amen.

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DANH SÁCH CÁC GIÁO SĨ BÁC HỌC/KHOA HỌC GIA CÔNG GIÁO
List of Roman Catholic cleric–scientists

Nguồn: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Roman_Catholic_scientist-clerics

Ban kỹ thuật sưu tầm

BẢN ANH NGỮ | BẢN VIỆT NGỮ

Many Roman Catholic clerics throughout history have made significant contributions to science. These cleric-scientists include such illustrious names as Nicolaus Copernicus, Gregor Mendel, Georges Lemaître, Albertus Magnus, Roger Bacon, Pierre Gassendi, Roger Joseph Boscovich, Marin Mersenne, Francesco Maria Grimaldi, Nicole Oresme, Jean Buridan, Robert Grosseteste, Christopher Clavius, Nicolas Steno, Athanasius Kircher, Giovanni Battista Riccioli, William of Ockham, and many others. Hundreds of others have made important contributions to science from the Middle Ages through the present day.

The Church has also produced thousands of lay scientists and mathematicians, many of whom were the intellectual giants of their day. These scientists include Galileo Galilei, Rene Descartes, Louis Pasteur, Blaise Pascal, André-Marie Ampère, Charles-Augustin de Coulomb, Pierre de Fermat, Antoine Laurent Lavoisier, Alessandro Volta, Augustin-Louis Cauchy, Pierre Duhem, Jean-Baptiste Dumas and countless others.

Indeed, one has to wonder why science developed in a largely Catholic milieu. This question is considered by Father Stanley Jaki in his book The Savior of Science. Jaki shows that Christian tradition identifies God as rational and orderly. He identifies the Scholastics of the High Middle Ages for their depersonalization of nature.

The Jesuits in particular have made numerous significant contributions to the development of science. For example, the Jesuits have dedicated significant study to earthquakes, and seismology has come to be known as "the Jesuit science." [1] This, however, is only one of many significant contributions. The Jesuits have been described as "the single most important contributor to experiemental physics in the seventeenth century." [2] According to Jonathan Wright in his book God's Soldiers, by the eighteenth century the Jesuits had contributed to the development of pendulum clocks, pantographs, barometers, reflecting telescopes and microscopes, to scientific fields as various as magnetism, optics and electricity. They observed, in some cases before anyone else, the colored bands on Jupiter’s surface, the Andromeda nebula and Saturn’s rings. They theorized about the circulation of the blood (independently of Harvey), the theoretical possibility of flight, the way the moon effected the tides, and the wave-like nature of light. Star maps of the southern hemisphere, symbolic logic, flood-control measures on the Po and Adige rivers, introducing plus and minus signs into Italian mathematics – all were typical Jesuit achievements, and scientists as influential as Fermat, Huygens, Leibniz and Newton were not alone in counting Jesuits among their most prized correspondents. [3]

The contributions of Roman Catholic clerics to the study of astronomy are also remarkable. J.L. Heilbron in his book The Sun in the Church: Cathedrals as Solar Observatories writes that "The Roman Catholic Church gave more financial aid and support to the study of astronomy for over six centuries, from the recovery of ancient learning during the late Middle Ages into the Enlightenment, than any other, and, probably, all other, institutions." [4] The fact that thirty-five craters on the moon are named for Jesuit scientists and mathematicians [5] shows the Church's commitment to astronomy.

The Church's commitment to scientific studies continues to this day. The Pontifical Academy of Sciences was founded in 1936 by Pope Pius XI. Its aim is to promote the progress of the mathematical, physical and natural sciences and the study of related epistemological problems. The academy holds a membership roster of the most respected names in 20th century science, many of them Nobel laureates. Also worth noting is the Vatican Observatory, which is an astronomical research and educational institution supported by the Holy See.

The cleric-scientists
(Danh sách những Giáo sĩ Khoa học gia Công giáo)

José de Acosta (1539–1600) – Jesuit missionary and naturalist who wrote one of the very first detailed and realistic descriptions of the new world.

François d'Aguilon (1567–1617) – Belgian Jesuit mathematician, physicist, and architect.

Albert of Saxony (philosopher) (c. 1320–1390) – German bishop known for his contributions to logic and physics; with Buridan he helped develop the theory that was a precursor to the modern theory of inertia.

Albertus Magnus (c. 1206–1280) – "One of the most famous precursors of modern science in the High Middles Ages." [6] Patron saint of natural sciences; Works in physics, logic, metaphysics, biology, and psychology.

José María Algué (1856–1930) – Meteorologist who invented the barocyclonometer.

José Antonio de Alzate y Ramírez (1737–1799) – Scientist, historian, cartographer, meteorologist; wrote more than thirty treatises on a variety of scientific subjects.

Francesco Castracane degli Antelminelli (1817–1899) – Botanist who was one of the first to introduce microphotography into the study of biology.

Giovanni Antonelli (1818–1872) – Director of the Ximenian Observatory of Florence; collaborated on the design of a prototype of the internal combustion engine.

Nicolò Arrighetti (1709–1767) – Wrote treatises on light, heat, and electricity.

Giuseppe Asclepi (1706–1776) – Astronomer and physician; director of the Collegio Romano observatory; The lunar crater Asclepi is named after him.

Roger Bacon (c. 1214–1294) – Significant contributions to mathematics and optics; forerunner of modern scientific method.

Bernardino Baldi (1533–1617) – Mathematician and writer.
Eugenio Barsanti (1821–1864) – Possible inventor of the internal combustion engine.

Bartholomeus Amicus (1562–1649) – Wrote on philosophy, mathematics, astronomy, and the concept of vacuum and its relationship with God.

Daniello Bartoli (1608–1685) – Bartoli and fellow Jesuit astronomer Niccolò Zucchi are credited as probably having been the first to see the equatorial belts on the planet Jupiter.

Joseph Bayma (1816–1892) – Known for work in stereochemistry and mathematics.

Giacopo Belgrado (1704–1789) – Experimental works in physics, professor of mathematics and physics, and court mathematician.

Mario Bettinus (1582–1657) – Jesuit philosopher, mathematician and astronomer; lunar crater Bettinus named after him.

Giuseppe Biancani (1566–1624) – Jesuit astronomer, mathematician, and selenographer, after whom the crater Blancanus on the Moon is named.

Jacques de Billy (1602–1679) – Produced a number of results in number theory which have been named after him; published several astronomical tables; The crater Billy on the Moon is named after him.

Paolo Boccone (1633–1704) – Cistercian botanist who contributed to the fields of medicine and toxicology.

Bernard Bolzano (1781–1848) – Mathematician and logician; other interests included metaphysics, ideas, sensation, and truth.

Anselmus de Boodt (1550–1632) – One of the founders of mineralogy.

Theodoric Borgognoni (1205–1298) – Medieval Surgeon who made important contributions to antiseptic practice and anaesthetics.

Christopher Borrus (1583–1632) – Mathematician and astronomy who made observations on the magnetic variation of the compass.

Roger Joseph Boscovich (1711–1787) – formulation of modern atomic theory, important contributions to astronomy.

Joachim Bouvet (1656–1730) – Jesuit sinologist and cartographer who did his work in China.

Michał Boym (c. 1612–1659) – One of the first westerners to travel within the Chinese mainland, and the author of numerous works on Asian fauna, flora and geography.

Thomas Bradwardine (c. 1290–1349) – Mathematician who contributed to mean speed theorem; one of the Oxford Calculators.

Henri Breuil (1877–1961) – Archaeologist, anthropologist, ethnologist and geologist.

Jan Brożek (1585–1652) – Polish polymath, mathematician, astronomer, and physician; the most prominent Polish mathematician of the 17th century.

Louis-Ovide Brunet (1826–1876) – One of the founding fathers of Canadian botany.
Francesco Faà di Bruno (c. 1825–1888) – Mathematician beatified by Pope John Paul II.

Giordano Bruno (1548–1600) – Dominican philosopher, mathematician, and astronomer who believed in the infinity of the universe; burned at the stake for other heretical views.

Ismaël Bullialdus (1605–1694) – Astronomer and member of the Royal Society; the Bullialdus crater is named in his honor.

Jean Buridan (c. 1300 – after 1358) – Early ideas of momentum and inertial motion; sowed the seeds of the Copernican revolution in Europe.

Niccolò Cabeo (1586–1650) – Jesuit mathematician; the crater Cabeus is named in his honor.
Nicholas Callan (1799–1846) – Best known for his work on the induction coil.
Jean Baptiste Carnoy (1836–1899) – Founder of the science of cytology.
Giovanni di Casali (died c. 1375) – Provided a graphical analysis of the motion of accelerated bodies.

Paolo Casati (1617–1707) – Jesuit mathematician who wrote on astronomy and vacuums; The crater Casatus on the Moon is named after him.

Laurent Cassegrain (1629–1693) – Probable namesake of the Cassegrain telescope; The crater Cassegrain on the Moon is named after him.

Benedetto Castelli (1578–1643) – Benedictine mathematician; long-time friend and supporter of Galileo Galilei, who was his teacher; wrote an important work on fluids in motion.

Bonaventura Cavalieri (1598–1647) – He is known for his work on the problems of optics and motion, work on the precursors of infinitesimal calculus, and the introduction of logarithms to Italy. Cavalieri's principle in geometry partially anticipated integral calculus; the lunar crater Cavalerius is named in his honor.

Antonio José Cavanilles (1745–1804) – A leading Spanish taxonomic botanist of the 18th century.
Francesco Cetti (1726–1778) – Jesuit zoologist and mathematician.

Tommaso Ceva (1648–1737) – Jesuit mathematician and professor who wrote treatises on geometry, gravity, and arithmetic.

Christopher Clavius (1538–1612) – Respected Jesuit Astronomer and mathematician who headed the commission that yielded the Gregorian calendar; wrote influential astronomical textbook.

Guy Consolmagno (1952– ?) – Jesuit astronomer and planetary scientist.

Nicolaus Copernicus (1473–1543) –Renaissance astronomer famous for his heliocentric cosmology that set in motion the Copernican Revolution.

Vincenzo Coronelli (1650–1718) – Franciscan cosmographer, cartographer, encyclopedist, and globe-maker
George Coyne (1933– ?) – Jesuit astronomer and former director of the Vatican Observatory.

James Cullen (mathematician) (1867–1933) – Jesuit mathematician who published what is now known as Cullen numbers in number theory.

James Curley (astronomer) (1796–1889) – First director of Georgetown Observatory; determined the latitude and longitude of Washington D.C..

Albert Curtz (1600–1671) – Jesuit astronomer who expanded on the works of Tycho Brahe and contributed to early understanding of the moon; The crater Curtius on the Moon is named after him.

Johann Baptist Cysat (1587–1657) – Jesuit mathematician and astronomer, after whom the lunar crater Cysatus is named; published the first printed European book concerning Japan; one of the first to make use of the newly developed telescope; most important work was on comets.

Jean-Baptiste Chappe d'Auteroche (1722-1769) - Astronomer best known for his observations of the transits of Venus.

Ignazio Danti (1536–1586) – Dominican mathematician, astronomer, cosmographer, and cartographer.
Armand David (1826–1900) – Zoologist and botanist who did important work in both areas in China.

Charles-Michel de l'Épée (1712–1789) – Known as the "father of the deaf" and established the world's first free school for the deaf.

Francesco Denza (1834–1894) – Meteorologist, astronomer, and director of Vatican Observatory.

Václav Prokop Diviš (1698–1765) – Studied the lightning rod independent of Franklin; constructed the first electrified musical instrument in history.

Johann Dzierzon (1811–1906) – Pioneering apiarist who discovered the phenomenon of parthenogenesis among bees, and designed the first successful movable-frame beehive; has been described as the "father of modern apiculture".

Honoré Fabri (1607–1688) – Jesuit mathematician and physicist.

Jean-Charles de la Faille (1597–1652) – Jesuit mathematician who determined the center of gravity of the sector of a circle for the first time.

Gabriele Falloppio (1523–1562) – One of the most important anatomists and physicians of the sixteenth century. The Fallopian tubes, which extend from the uterus to the ovaries, are named for him.

Gyula Fényi (1845–1927) – Jesuit astronomer and director of the Haynald Observatory; noted for his observations of the sun; The crater Fényi on the Moon is named after him.

Louis Feuillée (1660–1732) – Explorer, astronomer, geographer, and botanist.

Placidus Fixlmillner (1721–1791) – Benedictine priest and one of the first astronomers to compute the orbit of Uranus.

Paolo Frisi (1728–1784) – Mathematician and astronomer who did significant work in hydraulics.
José Gabriel Funes (1963– ?) – Jesuit astronomer and current director of the Vatican Observatory.
Joseph Galien (1699 – c. 1762) – Dominican professor who wrote on aeronautics, hailstorms, and airships.
Jean Gallois (1632–1707) – French scholar and member of Academie des sciences.

Pierre Gassendi (1592–1655) – French astronomer and mathematician who published the first data on the transit of Mercury; best known intellectual project attempted to reconcile Epicurean atomism with Christianity.

Agostino Gemelli (1878–1959) – Franciscan physician and psychologist; founded Catholic University of the Sacred Heart in Milan.

Johannes von Gmunden (c. 1380–1442) – Mathematician and astronomer who compiled astronomical tables; Asteroid 15955 Johannesgmunden named in his honor.

Carlos de Sigüenza y Góngora (1645–1700) – Polymath, mathematician, astronomer, and cartographer; drew the first map of all of New Spain.

Andrew Gordon (Benedictine) (1712–1751) – Benedictine monk, physicist, and inventor who made the first electric motor.

Christoph Grienberger (1561–1636) – Jesuit astronomer after whom the crater Gruemberger on the Moon is named; verified Galileo's discovery of Jupiter's moons.

Francesco Maria Grimaldi (1618–1663) – Discovered the diffraction of light, and indeed coined the term "diffraction"; investigated the free fall of objects; built and used instruments to measure geological features on the moon.

Robert Grosseteste (c. 1175 – 1253) – One of the most knowledgeable men of the Middle Ages; has been called "the first man to write down a complete set of steps for performing a scientific experiment." [7].

Paul Guldin (1577–1643) – Jesuit mathematician and astronomer who discovered the Guldinus theorem to determine the surface and the volume of a solid of revolution.

Bartolomeu de Gusmão (1685–1724) – Known for his early work on lighter-than-air airship design.

Johann Georg Hagen (1847–1930) – Director of the Georgetown and Vatican Observatories; The crater Hagen on the Moon is named after him.

Nicholas Halma (1755–1828) – French mathematician and translator.

Jean-Baptiste du Hamel (1624–1706) – French natural philosopher and secretary of the Academie Royale des Sciences.

René Just Haüy (1743–1822) – Father of crystallography.

Maximilian Hell (1720–1792) – Jesuit astronomer and director of the Vienna Observatory; the crater Hell on the Moon is named after him.

Michał Heller (1936– ?) – Templeton Prize winner and prolific writer on numerous scientific topics.
Lorenz Hengler (1806–1858) – Often credited as the inventor of the horizontal pendulum.
Hermann of Reichenau (1013–1054) – Historian, music theorist, astronomer, and mathematician.

Pierre Marie Heude (1836–1902) – Jesuit missionary and zoologist who studied the natural history of Eastern Asia.

Franz von Paula Hladnik (1773–1844) – Botanist who discovered several new kinds of plants, and certain genera have been named after him.

Giovanni Battista Hodierna (1597–1660) – Astronomer who catalogued nebulous objects and developed an early microscope.

Nicolaus Copernicus

Roger Bacon's circular diagrams relating to the scientific study of optics

Monsignor Georges Lemaître, priest and scientist

Gregor Mendel, Augustinian monk and geneticist

Sacrobosco's De sphaera mundi

Marin Mersenne

Pierre Gassendi

William of Ockham

Illustration from Steno's 1667 paper comparing the teeth of a shark head with a fossil tooth

Nicole Oresme

Albertus Magnus

Christopher Clauvius

First page of Boscovich's Theoria Philosophiæ Naturalis

Map of the Far East by Matteo Ricci in 1602

Nicolas of Cusa

Statue of Roger Bacon in the Oxford University Museum

Nicolas Steno

machina meteorologic invented by Václav Prokop Diviš worked like lightning rod

Athanasius Kircher

Medieval depiction of a spherical earth

Roger Boscovich

Robert Grosseteste

Victor-Alphonse Huard (1853–1929) – Naturalist, educator, writer, and promoter of the natural sciences.

Maximus von Imhof (1758–1817) – German Augustinian physicist and director of the Munich Academy of Sciences.

Giovanni Inghirami (1779–1851) – Italian astronomer; there is a valley on the moon named after him as well as a crater.

François Jacquier (1711–1788) – Franciscan mathematician and physicist; at his death he was connected with nearly all the great scientific and literary societies of Europe.

Stanley Jaki (1924–2009) – Benedictine priest and prolific writer who wrote on the relationship between science and theology.

Ányos Jedlik (1800–1895) – Benedictine engineer, physicist, and inventor; considered by Hungarians and Slovaks to be the unsung father of the dynamo and electric motor.

Georg Joseph Kamel (1661–1706) – Jesuit missionary and botanist who established the first pharmacy in the Philippines.

Otto Kippes (1905–1994) – Acknowledged for his work in asteroid orbit calculations; the main belt asteroid 1780 Kippes was named in his honour.

Athanasius Kircher (1602–1680) – The father of Egyptology; "Master of a hundred arts"; wrote an encyclopedia of China; one of the first people to observe microbes through a microscope.

Wenceslas Pantaleon Kirwitzer (1588–1626) – Jesuit astronomer and missionary who published observations of comets.

Jan Krzysztof Kluk (1739–1796) – Naturalist agronomist and entomologist who wrote a multi-volume work on Polish animal life.

Sebastian Kneipp (1821–1897) – One of the founders of the Naturopathic medicine movement.
Marian Wolfgang Koller (1792–1866) – Professor who wrote on astronomy, physics, and meteorology.

Franz Xaver Kugler (1862–1929) – Jesuit chemist, mathematician, and Assyriologist who is most noted for his studies of cuneiform tablets and Babylonian astronomy.

Nicolas Louis de Lacaille (1713-1762) – French astronomer noted for cataloguing stars, nebulous objects, and constellations.

Eugene Lafont (1837–1908) – Jesuit physicist, astronomer, and founder of the first Scientific Society in India.
Antoine de Laloubère (1600–1664) – The first mathematician to study the properties of the helix.
Bernard Lamy (1640–1715) – Philosopher and mathematician who wrote on the parallelogram of forces.

Pierre André Latreille (1762–1833) – Entomologist whose works describing insects assigned many of the insect taxa still in use today.

Georges Lemaître (1894–1966) – Father of the Big Bang Theory.
Thomas Linacre (c. 1460–1524) – Humanist translator and physician.

Francis Line (1595–1675) – Magnetic clock and sundial maker who disagreed with some of the findings of Newton and Boyle.

Juan Caramuel y Lobkowitz (1606–1682) – Prolific writer on a variety of scientific subjects; a earlier writer on probability.

Jean Mabillon (1632–1707) – Benedictine monk and scholar, considered the founder of palaeography and diplomatics.

James B. Macelwane (1883–1956) – "The best-known Jesuit seismologist" and "one of the most honored practicioners of the science of all time"; wrote the first textbook on seismology in America.

Paul McNally (1890–1955) – Jesuit astronomer and director of Georgetown Observatory; the crater McNally on the Moon is named after him.

Pierre Macq (1930 – ?) – Physicist who was awarded the Francqui Prize on Exact Sciences for his work on experimental nuclear physics.

Manuel Magri (1851–1907) – Jesuit ethnographer, archaeologist and writer; one of Malta's pioneers in archaeology.

Emmanuel Maignan (1601–1676) – Physicist and professor of medicine who published works on gnomonics and perspective.

Charles Malapert (1581–1630) – Jesuit writer, astronomer, and proponent of Aristotelian cosmology; also known for observations of sunpots and of the lunar surface, and the crater. Malapert on the Moon is named after him.

Nicolas Malebranche (1638–1715) – Philosopher who studied physics, optics, and the laws of motion; disseminated the ideas of Descartes and Leibniz.

Marcin of Urzędów (c. 1500–1573) – Physician, pharmacist, and botanist.
Joseph Maréchal (1878–1944) – Jesuit philosopher and psychologist.
Marie-Victorin (1885–1944) – Botanist best known as the father of the Jardin botanique de Montréal.
Edme Mariotte (c. 1620–1684) – Physicist who recognized Boyle's Law and wrote about the nature of color.

Francesco Maurolico (1494–1575) – Made contributions to the fields of geometry, optics, conics, mechanics, music, and astronomy; gave the first known proof by mathematical induction.

Christian Mayer (astronomer) (1719–1783) – Jesuit astronomer most noted for pioneering the study of binary stars.

Gregor Mendel (1822–1884) – Augustinian monk and father of genetics.
Pietro Mengoli (1626–1686) – Mathematician who first posed the famous Basel Problem.

Giuseppe Mercalli (1850–1914) – Volcanologist and director of the Vesuvius Observatory; best remembered today for his Mercalli scale for measuring earthquakes which is still in use.

Marin Mersenne (1588–1648) – Philosopher, mathematician, and music theorist who is often referred to as the "father of acoustics".

Paul of Middelburg (1446–1534) – Wrote important works on the reform of the Calendar.

Maciej Miechowita (1457–1523) – Wrote the first accurate geographical and ethnographical description of Eastern Europe; also wrote two medical treatises.

François-Napoléon-Marie Moigno (1804–1884) – Jesuit physicist and mathematician; was an expositor of science and translator rather than an original investigator.

Juan Ignacio Molina (1740–1829) – Jesuit naturalist, historian, botanist, ornithologist and geographer.
Louis Moréri (1643–1680) – 17th century encyclopaedist.

Théodore Moret (1602–1667) – Jesuit mathematician and author of the first mathematical dissertations ever defended in Prague; the lunar crater Moretus is named after him.

Landell de Moura (1861–1928) – Inventor who was the first to accomplish the transmission of the human voice by a wireless machine.

Gabriel Mouton (1618–1694) – Mathematician, astronomer, and early proponent of the metric system.

Jozef Murgaš (1864–1929) – Contributed to wireless telegraphy and help develop mobile communications and wireless transmission of information and human voice.

José Celestino Mutis (1732–1808) – Botanist and mathematician who led the Royal Botanical Expedition of the New World.

Jean François Niceron (1613–1646) – Mathematician who studied geometrical optics.

Nicholas of Cusa (1401–1464) – Cardinal, philosopher, jurist, mathematician, and astronomer; one of the great geniuses and polymaths of the 15th century.

Julius Nieuwland (1878–1936) – Holy Cross priest, known for his contributions to acetylene research and its use as the basis for one type of synthetic rubber, which eventually led to the invention of neoprene by DuPont.

Jean-Antoine Nollet (1700–1770) – Physicist who discovered the phenomenon of osmosis in natural membranes.

Hugo Obermaier (1877–1946) – Distinguished prehistorian and anthropologist who is known for his work on the diffusion of mankind in Europe during the Ice Age, and in connection with north Spanish cave art.

William of Ockham (c. 1288 – c. 1348) – Franciscan Scholastic who wrote significant works on logic, physics, and theology; known for Ockham's Razor.

Nicole Oresme (c. 1323–1382) – One of the most famous and influential philosophers of the later Middle Ages; economist, mathematician, physicist, astronomer, philosopher, theologian and Bishop of Lisieux, and competent translator; one of the most original thinkers of the 14th century.

Barnaba Oriani (1752–1832) – Geodesist, astronomer and scientist; greatest achievement was his detailed research of the planet Uranus; known for Oriani's theorem.

Luca Pacioli (c. 1446–1517) – Often regarded as the Father of Accounting; published several works on mathematics.

Ignace-Gaston Pardies (1636–1673) – Physicist known for his correspondence with Newton and Descartes.
Franciscus Patricius (1529–1597) – Cosmic theorist, philosopher, and Renaissance scholar.
John Peckham (1230–1292) – Archbishop of Canterbury and early practitioner of experimental science.

Nicolas Claude Fabri de Peiresc (1580–1637) – Astromer who discovered the Orion Nebula; lunar crater Peirescius named in his honor.

Stephen Joseph Perry (1833–1889) – Jesuit astronomer and Fellow of the Royal Society; made frequent observations of Jupiter's satellites, of stellar occultations, of comets, of meteorites, of sun spots, and faculae.

Giambattista Pianciani (1784–1862) – Jesuit mathematician and physicist.

Giuseppe Piazzi (1746–1826) – Theatine mathematician and astronomer who discovered Ceres, today known as the largest member of the asteroid belt; also did important work cataloguing stars.

Jean Picard (1620–1682) – First person to measure the size of the Earth to a reasonable degree of accuracy; also developed what became the standard method for measuring the right ascension of a celestial object; The PICARD mission, an orbiting solar observatory, is named in his honor.

Edward Pigot (1858–1929) – Jesuit seismologist and astronomer.

Alexandre Guy Pingré (1711–1796) – French astronomer and naval geographer; the crater Pingré on the Moon is named after him, as is the asteroid 12719 Pingré.

Jean Baptiste François Pitra (1812–1889) – Bendedictine cardinal, archaeologist and theologian who noteworthy for his great archaeological discoveries.

Charles Plumier (1646–1704) – Considered one of the most important botanical explorers of his time.

Marcin Odlanicki Poczobutt (1728–1810) – Jesuit astronomer and mathematician; granted the title of the King's Astronomer; the crater Poczobutt on the Moon is named after him.

Léon Abel Provancher (1820–1892) – Naturalist devoted to the study and description of the fauna and flora of Canada; his pioneer work won for him the appellation of the "Father of Natural History in Canada".

Louis Receveur (1757–1788) – Franciscan naturalist and astronomer; described as being as close as one could get to being an ecologist in the 18th century.

Franz Reinzer (1661–1708) – Wrote an in-depth meteorological, astrological, and political compendium covering topics such as comets, meteors, lightning, winds, fossils, metals, bodies of water, and subterranean treasures and secrets of the earth.

Louis Rendu (1789–1859) – Bishop who wrote an important book on the mechanisms of glacial motion; the Rendu Glacier, Alaska, U.S. and Mount Rendu, Antarctica are named for him.

Vincenzo Riccati (1707–1775) – Italian mathematician and physicist.

Matteo Ricci (1552–1610) – One of the founding fathers of the Jesuit China Mission; co-author of the first European-Chinese dictionary.

Giovanni Battista Riccioli (1598–1671) – Astronomer who authored Almagestum novum, an influential encyclopedia of astronomy; The first person to measure the rate of acceleration of a freely falling body; created a selenograph with Father Grimaldi that now adorns the entrance at the National Air and Space Museum in Washington D.C..

Richard of Wallingford (1292-1336) - Renowned clockmaker and one of the initiators of Western Trigonometry.

Johannes Ruysch (c. 1460–1533) – Explorer, cartographer, and astronomer who created the second oldest known printed representation of the New World.

Giovanni Girolamo Saccheri (1667–1733) – Jesuit mathematician and geometer.

Johannes de Sacrobosco (c. 1195 – c. 1256) – Irish monk and astronomer who wrote the authoritative medieval astronomy text Tractatus de Sphaera; his Algorismus was the first text to introduce Hindu-Arabic numerals and procedures into the European university curriculum; the lunar crater Sacrobosco is named after him.

Gregoire de Saint-Vincent (1584–1667) – Jesuit mathematician who made important contributions to the study of the hyperbola.

Alphonse Antonio de Sarasa (1618–1667) – Jesuit mathematician who contributed to the understanding of  logarithms.

Christoph Scheiner (c. 1573–1650) – Jesuit physicist, astronomer, and inventor of the pantograph; wrote on a wide range of scientific subjects.

George Schoener (1864–1941) – Became known in the United States as the "Padre of the Roses" for his experiments in rose breeding.

Gaspar Schott (1608–1666) – Jesuit physicist, astronomer, and natural philosopher who is most widely known for his works on hydraulic and mechanical instruments.

Franz Paula von Schrank (1747–1835) – Botanist, entomologist, and prolific writer.
Berthold Schwarz (c. 14th century) – Franciscan friar and reputed inventor of gunpowder and firearms.
Anton Maria Schyrleus of Rheita (1604–1660) – Astronomer and optrician who built Kepler's telescope.
George Mary Searle (1839–1918) – Paulist astronomer and professor who discovered six galaxies.

Angelo Secchi (1818–1878) – Pioneer in astronomical spectroscopy, and was one of the first scientists to state authoritatively that the Sun is a star.

Alessandro Serpieri (1823–1885) – Astronomer and seismologist who studied shooting stars, and was the first to introduce the concept of the seismic radiant.

Gerolamo Sersale (1584–1654) – Jesuit astronomer and selenographer; his map of the moon can be seen in the Naval Observatory of San Fernando; the lunar crater Sirsalis is named after him.

Benedict Sestini (1816–1890) – Jesuit astronomer, mathematician and architect; studied sunspots and eclipses; wrote textbooks on a variety of mathematical subjects.

René François Walter de Sluse (1622–1685) – Mathematician with a family of curves named after him.

Lazzaro Spallanzani (1729–1799) – Biologist and physiologist who made important contributions to the experimental study of bodily functions, animal reproduction, and essentially discovered echolocation; his research of biogenesis paved the way for the investigations of Louis Pasteur.

Valentin Stansel (1621–1705) – Jesuit astronomer who made important observations of comets.

Johan Stein (1871–1951) – Jesuit astronomer and director of the Vatican Observatory, which he modernized and relocated to Castel Gandolfo; the crater Stein on the far side of the Moon is named after him.

Nicolas Steno (1638–1686) – Often called the father of geography and stratigraphy ("Steno's principles"); beatified by Pope John Paul II.

Pope Sylvester II (c. 946–1003) – Prolific scholar who endorsed and promoted Arabic knowledge of arithmetic, mathematics, and astronomy in Europe, reintroducing the abacus and armillary sphere which had been lost to Europe since the end of the Greco-Roman era.

Alexius Sylvius Polonus (1593 – c. 1653) – Jesuit astronomer who studied sunspots and published a work on calendariography.

Ignacije Szentmartony (1718–1793) – Jesuit cartographer, mathematician, and astronomer who became a member of the expedition that worked on the rearrangement of the frontiers among colonies in South America.

André Tacquet (1612–1660) – Jesuit mathematician whose work laid the groundwork for the eventual discovery of calculus.

Pierre Teilhard de Chardin (1881–1955) – Jesuit paleontologist and geologist who took part in the discovery of Peking Man.

Francesco Lana de Terzi (c. 1631–1687) – Referred to as the Father of Aeronautics for his pioneering efforts; also developed the idea that developed into Braille.

Theodoric of Freiberg (c. 1250 – c. 1310) – Dominican theologian and physicist who gave the first correct geometrical analysis of the rainbow.

Joseph Tiefenthaler (1710–1785) – One of the earliest European geographers to write about India.

Giuseppe Toaldo (1719–1797) – Physicist who studied atmospheric electricity and did important work with lightning rods; the asteroid 23685 Toaldo is named for him.

José Torrubia (c. 1700–1768) – Linguist, scientist, collector of fossils and books, and writer on historical, political and religious subjects.

Franz de Paula Triesnecker (1745–1817) – Jesuit astronomer and director of the Vienna Observatory; published a number of treatises on astronomy and geography; the crater Triesnecker on the Moon is named after him.

Basil Valentine (c. 15th century) – Alchemist whom author James J. Walsh calls the father of modern chemistry [8].

Luca Valerio (1552–1618) – Jesuit mathematician who developed ways to find volumes and centers of gravity of solid bodies.

Pierre Varignon (1654–1722) – Mathematician whose principle contributions were to statics and mechanics; created a mechanical explanation of gravitation.

Giovanni Battista Venturi (1746-1822) - Discovered the Venturi effect.
Fausto Veranzio (c. 1551–1617) – Bishop, polymath, inventor, and lexicographer.

Ferdinand Verbiest (1623–1688) – Jesuit astronomer and mathematician; designed what some claim to be the first ever self-propelled vehicle – many claim this as the world's first automobile.

Francesco de Vico (1805–1848) – Jesuit astronomer who discovered or co-discovered a number of comets; also made observations of Saturn and the gaps in its rings; the lunar crater De Vico and the asteroid 20103 de Vico are named after him.

Vincent of Beauvais (c.1190–c.1264) – Wrote the most influential encyclopedia of the Middle Ages.
János Vitéz (archbishop) (c.1405–1472) – Archbishop, astronomer, and mathematician.

Martin Waldseemüller (c. 1470–1520) – German cartographer who, along with Matthias Ringmann, is credited with the first recorded usage of the word America.

Godefroy Wendelin (1580–1667) – Astronomer who recognized that Kepler's third law applied to the satellites of Jupiter; the lunar crate Vendelinus is named in his honor.

Johannes Werner (1468–1522) – Mathematician, astronomer, and geographer.

Witelo (c. 1230 – after 1280, before 1314) – Physicist, natural philosopher, and mathematician; lunar crater Vitello named in his honor; his Perspectiva powerfully influenced later scientists, in particular Johannes Kepler.

Julian Tenison Woods (1832–1889) – Passionist geologist and mineralogist.

Theodor Wulf (1868–1946) – Jesuit physicist who was one of the first experimenters to detect excess atmospheric radiation.

Franz Xaver von Wulfen (1728-1805) - Jesuit botanist, minerologist, and alpinist.
John Zahm (1851–1921) – Holy Cross Priest and South American explorer.

Giuseppe Zamboni (1776–1846) – Physicist who invented the Zamboni pile, an early electric battery similar to the Voltaic pile.

Francesco Zantedeschi (1797–1873) – Among the first to recognize the marked absorption by the atmosphere of red, yellow, and green light; published papers on the production of electric currents in closed circuits by the approach and withdrawal of a magnet, thereby anticipating Michael Faraday's classical experiments of 1831.

Niccolò Zucchi (1586–1670) – Attempted to build a reflecting telescope in 1616; may have been the first to see the belts on the planet Jupiter; corresponded with Kepler.

Giovanni Battista Zupi (c. 1590–1650) – Jesuit astronomer, mathematician, and first person to discover that the planet Mercury had orbital phases; the crater Zupus on the Moon is named after him.

 
Further reading:
 

Barr, Stephen M. Modern Physics and Ancient Faith. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame, 2006.
Broad, William J. "How the Church aided 'Heretical' Astronomy," New York Times, October 19, 1999.
Feingold, Mordechai, ed. Jesuit Science and the Republic of Letters. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2002.
Gilson, Etienne, Reason and Revelation in the Middle Ages. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1970.

Grant, Edward. The Foundations of Modern Science in the Middle Ages: Their Religious, Institutional, and Intellectual Contexts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

Grant, Edward. God and Reason in the Middle Ages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.

Hannam, James. The Genesis of Science: How the Christian Middle Ages Launched the Scientific Revolution. Washington, DC: Regnery, 2011.

Heilbron, J.L. The Sun in the Church: Cathedrals as Solar Observatories. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1999.

Horn, Stephan Otto, ed. Creation and Evolution: A Conference with Pope Benedict XVI in Castel Gandolfo. San Francisco, CA: Ignatius, 2008.

Jaki, Stanley. The Savior of Science. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2000.

Jaki, Stanley. Science and Creation: From Eternal Cycles to an Oscillating University. Edinburgh: Scottish Academic Press, 1986.

Lindberg, David C. The Beginnings of Western Science. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992.
MacDonnell, Joseph E. Jesuit Geometers. St. Louis: Institute of Jesuit Sources, 1989.

Schönborn, Christoph Cardinal. Chance or Purpose?: Creation, Evolution, and a Rational Faith. San Francisco: Ignatius, 2007.

Spitzer, Robert J. New Proofs for the Existence of God: Contributions of Contemporary Physics and Philosophy. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2010.

Walsh, James J. Catholic Churchmen in Science: Sketches of the Lives of Catholic Ecclesiastics Who Were among the Great Founders in Science.

Walsh, James J. The Popes and Science. New York: Fordham University Press, 1911.
Woods, Thomas E. How the Catholic Church Built Western Civilization. Washington, DC: Regnery, 2005.

 

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Đăng ngày Thứ Năm, JULY 28th, 2011
Cập nhật hóa ngày Thứ Sáu, AUGUST 5th, 2011
Ban Kỹ thuật K10A-72/SQTB/ĐĐ, ĐĐ11/TĐ1ND, QLVNCH